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Chandra Shekhar, Sr. Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu-Tawi.
Nidhi Vij , P.G. Student, P.G. Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu-Tawi

Emotional Intelligence is considered a prerequisite for success in academic settings. The present study was carried out with the objectives to investigate the gender related differences on Emotional Intelligence of Ph.D. Scholars. The study was carried on 60 Ph.D. Scholars of Jammu University; 30 males and 30 females, selected using randomised sampling method. As per research plan all 60 subjects were selected on the basis of gender (males and females) using Emotional Intelligence Scale developed by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar (2002). T-test was used for deriving the results. Significant difference was found between the emotional intelligence of male and female scholars. The differences indicate significant role of gender in emotional intelligence of research scholars.

Keywords : Emotion, gender, emotional Intelligence


Though the field of emotional intelligence is a fairly new one – the word ‘emotional intelligence’ itself was coined first and used in literary writing by Mayer & Salovey in 1990 (Cherniss, 2000). The concept has become immensely popular as it explains and provides evidence on how people with a good IQ sometimes fail and those who were school dropouts and considered stupid go on to become the most successful ones in the Emotional Intelligence field (Goleman, 1995). At the most general level, Emotional Intelligence (E.I.) refers to the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and others (Goleman, 2001). Mayer & Salovey, who originally used the term “emotional intelligence” in published writing, defined emotional intelligence as:

“The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions, and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997)”.

Some of the forerunners in the research on emotional intelligence – Mayer, Salovey (1990), David Goleman (1998), and Reuben Bar-On (2002) – list out various characteristics which decide a person’s emotional intelligence. While Mayer and Salovey (1990) take Emotional Intelligence as a purely cognitive ability, Goleman and Bar-On view it as a personality trait. Mayer and Salovey’s four branch model of Emotional Intelligence lays emphasis on emotional perception, emotional assimilation, understanding and management (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2004), where as Bar-On (2002) agrees on the qualities of emotional self-awareness, self-actualization, interpersonal relationship, reality testing, stress tolerance, optimism, happiness, etc. as those that decide the emotional intelligence of a person. Goleman (1998) on the other hand points out to emotional self-awareness, self-control, empathy, problem solving, conflict management, leadership, etc. as the characteristics of an emotionally intelligent person. The mixed ability model proposed by Bar-On emphasizes on how the personality traits influence a person’s general well-being and Goleman’s model focuses on workplace success (Stys & Brown, 2004).

Mayer and Salovey (1990) propounded four branch model understands emotional intelligence as a cognitive ability and presents the four levels through which a person becomes emotionally intelligent. • Emotional Perception • Emotional Assimilation • Emotional Understanding • Emotional Management
The first step emotional perception is an ability to be self-aware of emotions and to express them accurately. When a person is aware of the emotions he is experiencing, he moves on to the next level – emotional assimilation, which is to distinguish between the different emotions he is undergoing and also identify those emotions that affect his thought process. This ability leads him to – emotional understanding, an ability to understand complex emotions and also to recognize the transition from one emotion to another. By then he becomes adapt in dealing with his emotions and thus is able to manage his emotions by connecting to or disconnecting from any emotion at any given situation. This gives him complete control over his impulses and is thus able to think, analyze and behave rationally in any situation. The entire process is purely an intellectual procedure. Emotions are understood and controlled through intellectual process. In contrast, Bar-On (2002) and Goleman (1998) proposed the mixed ability models which include certain personality traits as well. Bar-On’s (2002) model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential for performance and success, rather than performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented. It strives to identify in a person the latent capability of being emotionally intelligent.

This is similar to Mayer and Salovey’s (1990) model on emotional self-awareness, self-control, self-expression, and empathy, but along with these aspects, Bar-On (2002) includes reality testing, - the ability to assess the relation between the emotionally experienced and the actual nature of an object, stress tolerance, and the strength to stay happy and optimistic in the face of adversity. Goleman’s model (1998) deviates slightly as he includes organizational awareness, leadership, teamwork and collaboration along with self-awareness, self-control and empathy, as his focus is on workplace success.

The latter half of the twentieth century saw the pendulum swing towards recognizing the positive role of emotions in a person’s life. This was in response to the extravagant credit accrued on intellect which had led to a “lack of self-understanding and impoverished shallow social relationships” (Matthews’s et. al. 2004). A person who had academic acclaim was envied, but at the same time was looked upon with derision. He was becoming the butt of ridicule with eves in television programs caricaturing him as a ‘nerd’ who lacked even the basic social skills and was never in tune with reality (Zeidner & Matthews, 2000).

As emerging field, diverse definitions are proposed to define the concept and it becomes imperative which emotional intelligence are we going to discuss. Although the phrase emotional intelligence has been in literature for a while even before Payne, (Petrides, 2011) the concept in its present form has its roots in Mayer & Salovey’s construct of 1990. The concept was welcomed as new and if proven, a path breaking find. But, the current popularity of the theory owes itself to Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence – Why it can matter more than IQ (1995). Following the popularity, innumerable constructs have been proposed (many not based on empirical data – Goleman’s book itself was not strictly based on researched and tested data. Active research and interest in this field has led it to its current position where the theory has fork into two different approaches – Mayer and Salovey’s ability model and Goleman and Bar-On’s mixed models. Currently, Goleman’s model is referred to as a competency model and Bar-On’s as a trait model.

Goleman’s Competency Model as observed earlier, Goleman’s contribution to the field of Emotional Intelligence is phenomenal in the sense that he took the theory to a wider section of audience and popularized it to such an extent that it made to the cover page of Times’ instantaneously. He sensationalized the topic with his book Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ’ in 1995 with tall claims bordering on hyperbolic sometimes, making sweeping statements like Emotional Intelligence was the reason for “nearly 90% of the difference” between star performers and average ones (Goleman, 1998). Inspired by the findings of Mayer & Salovey, Goleman pursued research in emotional intelligence and proposed a four branch model which was further classified into twenty emotional competencies. He differed from Mayer & Salovey’s model of Emotional Intelligence in that he added a few personality traits like trustworthiness, innovation, team player, etc. which has also earned the criticism that it was preposterously all encompassing’ (Locke, 2005). He believes that these emotional competencies are not innate talents but those that can be learnt and developed. In turn, the potential to develop these emotional competencies depended on a person’s emotional intelligence which he believes is a latent, inborn talent. Emotional intelligence and emotional competencies are like apples and apple sauces (Goleman, 2003). While Emotional Intelligence is natural, emotional competencies are the offshoot of emotional intelligence. His four branch model (2001) included:

Self-Awareness: Emotional Self-awareness, Accurate Self-Assessment and Self-Confidence.
Self-Management: Self-Control, Trustworthiness, Conscientiousness, Adaptability, Achievement Drive and Initiative. Social Awareness: Empathy, Social Orientation and Organizational Awareness.
Relationship Management: Developing Others, Influence, Communication, Conflict Management, Leadership, Change Catalyst, Building Bonds, Teamwork and Collaboration.

Goleman (1998) was the first to apply the concept of Emotional Intelligence to business through his article in Harvard Business Review. He drew attention to the fact that effective leaders had high degree of emotional intelligence. A sound technical knowledge and a good IQ were “threshold capabilities” (Goleman 1998) which were “entry level requirements”. On the other hand, good interpersonal, social and team building skills, help a person develop a good rapport with his colleagues, higher officials and subordinates which is vital for a person’s success.

If IQ got a person a good job, it was emotional intelligence which would help him retain it and be successful in his workplace (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003; Cherniss et. al. 1998; Boyatzis & Oosten, 2002). Based on the emotional intelligence competencies and a measure of competencies of managers, executives, and leaders – a Self-Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) – already developed by Richard Boyatzis (1994), Goleman developed his Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) – a multi rater instrument that provides self, manager, direct report, and peer ratings on a series of behavioral indicators of emotional intelligence (Stys and Brown, 2004). Forty percent of the new instrument was from the earlier questionnaire SAQ which was validated against the performance of hundreds of managers, executives and leaders in North America (Boyatzis et. al., 2000). Aiming to develop an instrument that can be applied across all occupations and life settings, the ECI improved upon the SAQ. Competencies which were not addressed by the SRQ were added and focused on with new test items. Based on the samples collected from 596 people who were managers and sales persons, reliability and inter-correlation of the items were analyzed and the ECI was revised and rewritten in 1999. The revised version asks the respondents to describe themselves and others on each item on a scale of 1 to 6 with each step progressively labeled beginning with “… the behavior is only slightly characteristic of the individual…” to the highest response “… the behavior is highly characteristic if this individual…” (Boyatzis et.al. 2000). A study conducted on 358 managers across the Johnson and Johnson Consumer & Personal Care Group assessed if there were any specific leadership skills that distinguished between high and average performers and came out with significant results that found a strong relationship between superior performing and emotional competence (Cavallo & Brienza, 2004). The ECI is complete and effective in the sense, it incorporates a person’s self-assessment and others’ assessment of him/her giving a 360° perspective, but, it also raises a serious question of reliability. How far can a person’s assessment of himself be accepted is debatable, given the condition that he might be giving an answer based on his presumptions regarding his emotional competencies. An overconfident person might think that he is emotionally competent whereas a person with low self-esteem might under estimate his competencies. As Grubb and McDaniel (2007) observe, the mixed models are vulnerable to faking as they include “non-cognitive dimensions” and use self-report measures. As very few peer reviewed assessments of the reliability and validity of ECI have been undertaken and published (Conte, 2005), it is best to leave the validity of the construct to future research and study.

Bar-On’s Trait model Bar-On’s model of emotional intelligence focuses on the “potential” for success rather than success itself and is more process-oriented than outcome-oriented (Bar-On, 2002). He believed that emotional intelligence can be learned and developed over a period of time through training, programming and therapy (Stys & Brown, 2004). The Bar-On model differs from Goleman’s model in that it includes stress management and general mood components like optimism and happiness. Apart from these, he incorporates reality testing which asserts how far a person is aware of the gap between the actual meaning and his construed meaning of a given situation, and also impulse control which is an ability to control oneself from reacting to a situation in a reckless manner. Bar-On’s (2006) model outlines five components which are further classified into fifteen subcomponents.

Intrapersonal: Self Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness, Assertiveness, Self-Actualization.
Interpersonal: Empathy, Social Responsibility and Interpersonal Relationship.
Adaptability: Reality Testing, Flexibility and Problem Solving
Stress Management: Stress Tolerance and Impulse Control
General Mood Components: Optimism and Happiness

As the construct incorporates both emotional and social competencies, Bar-On refers to it as the Emotional Social Intelligence (ESI) rather than emotional intelligence or social intelligence (2006). He defines his ESI as “emotional-social intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands.” Bar-On’s model associates emotional intelligence to positive psychology which contributes significantly to a person’s happiness and psychological well-being in life (Bar-On, 2010; Bar-On, 2006). He believes that individuals with higher emotional quotient (EQ) are more competent in coping with demands, challenges and pressures of everyday life. Thus, the Emotional Quotient Inventory(EQ-i) – a self-report measure – used to measure the ESI, focuses on measuring one’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures (Bar-On, 2002), rather than personality traits or his cognitive capabilities. ESI is operationalized by the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) which was originally constructed to examine a theory of emotional and social functioning on which Bar-On was working for his dissertation. Bar-On (2006) claims that his model is a better predictor of human performance in workplace and in academics.

When Mayer and Salovey introduced the concept of Emotional Intelligence in 1990, they defined it as “an ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” They believed that any task is loaded with information, affective information and understanding and regulating it would help individuals “to solve problems and regulate behavior” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). They conceptualized a set of skills which they believed would assist a person in regulating his emotions. They identified three broad skills – appraisal and expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and utilization of emotion- which was further classified as:
Appraisal and regulation of emotion: In self (verbal and non-verbal perception) and others (non-verbal perception and empathy) – a person who is able to accurately perceive his emotions will also be able to respond to his emotions accurately, and in turn will be better in expressing them to others. At the same time, he should be able to understand the emotions in others as well. This allows him to adapt to the situation and have better social skills. These skills are a part of emotional intelligence as it requires the processing of emotional information in oneself and in others. Regulation of emotion: In self and others – emotions can be triggered and regulated according to a person’s will, when he is adept at consciously perceiving those factors which have a feel good effect and those which do not. This ability also sharpens his senses towards perceiving the emotions of others and effectively adapting himself or influencing others as the situation demands. As the authors themselves acknowledge, this can sometimes have a negative bearing as people may try to manipulate others to meet their own demands – good or bad.
Utilization of emotions: Flexible planning, creative thinking, redirected attention and motivation – this ability is included in the construct because, people with emotional intelligence should be at an advantage in solving problems adaptively (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). An awareness of his emotional state helps him plan his actions, think creatively, redirect his focus and motivate himself to get the best out of any situation. The initial conceptualization focused on perceiving and regulating emotions. As the authors felt that this was incomplete without thinking about emotions, they redefined the theory as “Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Based on this definition, a four branch model was proposed – the four branches moving from basic psychological processes to more complex ones. They also believe that an emotionally intelligent person had the ability to progress through these four levels and master most of them faster than others with lower Emotional Intelligence. The four branches each were further subdivided into four sets of skills:
Perception, Appraisal and Expression of Emotion: This is an ability to identify emotions in one, in others, express them accurately and further discriminate between honest and dishonest expressions of feelings. Emotional Facilitation of Thinking: This sharpens the thought process as emotions direct attention towards important information and the emotions can be used to classify the information for better judgment and memory. Emotionality helps people to have multiple perspectives. A happy mood leads to optimistic views and a bad mood to pessimistic thoughts. An awareness of these mood swings assists a person in approaching a problem in specific ways with better reasoning and creativity.
Understanding and Analyzing emotions: It is based on employing emotional knowledge: to identify the subtle relationships and differences between similar emotions – e.g. loving and liking, and also interpret the meanings of those emotions. The person also has the ability to identify complex emotions occurring simultaneously (love and hate, fear and surprise, etc.) and also perceive the transition from one emotion to another (when anger turns to satisfaction or anger leading to shame).
Reflective Regulation of Emotions to Promote Emotional and Intellectual Growth: It is an ability to be open to emotions good or bad and thus having the power to voluntarily attach or detach from an emotion. The person also has the competence to reflect on his own and others emotions and thus be able to manage emotions in himself and others. In order to test whether emotional intelligence meets the standard criteria to be accepted as scientifically legitimate, Mayer et.al. (1999) proposed the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale and proved that there exists good evidence and possibility that emotional intelligence is a distinct form of intelligence. The scale used a 12 subscale ability test to assess the emotional intelligence of the participants (503 adults and 229 adolescents). Twelve tasks measured the different abilities classified under the four branches:

Emotional perception – identify emotions in faces, music, designs and stories
Emotional facilitation of thinking – describes emotional sensations and asked to simulate situations where any specific emotion is predominant
Emotional understanding – recognize when two emotions blend (surprise and joy, etc.) and when one emotion progresses into another (anger becoming hatred, etc.)
Emotional management – given imaginary situations and asked how they would act.

Thus the answers were analyzed based on the consensus (the group), the expert and the target scoring. The results showed that emotional intelligence could be operationalized as a set of abilities; was distinct from the existing theories of intelligence, and still showed a correlation to verbal intelligence (part of general intelligence) and was also proved that emotional intelligence develops with age.

A total sample of 60 research scholars (30 males and 30 females) were selected for the study from randomized sampling method. The data were collected from the University of Jammu.

In the present study, the sample was selected using randomized sampling. The study was conducted on the sample of 60 subjects, from which 60 (30 males and 30 females) and all are research scholars. The survey was conducted using questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence given by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar (2002). In the initial visit, they were informing about the study, followed by taken their written consent. The whole study was conducted in a period of 45 days by visiting the different departments in the University of Jammu.
Statistical tools and techniques are those which are used to find out the results of the study. Depending upon the sampling procedure, sample, hypotheses, objectives and need of the study, the data will be subjected to t-test analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (20th version) and descriptive statistics will be used for the analysis of data.

Our first objective of study was to assess the level of emotional intelligence of Ph.D. research scholars of Jammu University. Our hypothesis was there will be normal/average level of emotional intelligence among research scholars. We calculated average scores and standard deviation for both male and female scholars. Calculated standard deviation and average scores are 14.651 and 129.583 respectively. In order to interpret these mean scores and standard deviation we referred norm table given in the manual of the scale. In manual it is stated that 85 and above scores refer to higher level of emotional intelligence. Thus we can simply conclude that research scholars have higher level of emotional intelligence. We also calculated means and standard deviations for males and females separately which are mentioned in t-test analysis.


Showing the mean and standard deviations of emotional intelligence for the total sample.

Variable---------------------------Sample----------------Mean-----------------Standard Deviation

Emotional Intelligence-------Ph.D. Scholars----------129.583-----------------14.651

Our second objective was to assess the gender differences in emotional intelligence among research scholars and associated hypothesis was; there will be no gender differences in emotional intelligence among research scholars. This is a null hypothesis and for testing this we used t-test (of inferential statistics) of significance with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics 20. We found significant differences in the emotional intelligence of male and female scholars as the calculated t-ratio is 7.484 and associated significance value is .000. With reference to these values we can conclude that these differences are statistically significant at 0.01 level of significance (beta level) as the calculated significance value is less than .01. It also directs us to reject our null hypothesis. Following table shows the analysis results as:




Thus it is concluded from the above study that there is a significant difference in emotional difference between male and female scholars of Jammu University. The above results show that the emotional intelligence of female scholars is higher as compared to the male scholars. The results of the present study is similar to the study conducted by Mohanty and Devi (2010) on gender differences among emotional intelligence (N=60) which revealed that girls are more optimistic and well aware of their feelings in comparison to boys. Girls are more aware and understand their own feelings (components of emotional intelligence) than boys.

Limitations of the study
Only Ph.D. research scholars were taken for the study.
Sample size for the study is small.
Sample was collected only from the Jammu University.



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